Research Interests and Activities: The reconstruction of paleoenvironments has been my principal research focus, particularly in the Beringian region. To date, I have studied insect fossil assemblages from 175 sites in North America and Europe, deriving data for use in paleoecological and paleoclimatic reconstructions. I am particularly interested in Pleistocene interglacial climates in the Arctic, as current research has documented the fact that global warming tends to be amplified in the polar regions. Since lowland regions of Beringia (north-eastern Siberia, the exposed Bering and Chukchi Sea shelves, Alaska and the Yukon Territory) remained ice-free during Pleistocene glaciations, this is essentially the only region where a terrestrial fossil record of glacial and interglacial environments has been preserved in the high latitudes.
It is increasingly important to develop quantitative estimates of past climates. This imperative has driven my research in several ways. My current research activities include two independent means of deriving calibrated, numerical estimates of past temperatures. One of these is the development of stable isotope (oxygen and hydrogen) analysis from fossil beetle chitin (with Darren Gröcke, McMaster University). The other is the continued refining of the Mutual Climatic Range method of paleoclimate estimation, which I developed for North American Quaternary insect assemblages. Finally, I am collaborating with Prof. Eske Willerslev, University of Copenhagen, and Dr. Ian Barnes, Royal Holloway, in the analysis of ancient DNA from fossil beetle remains, taken from permafrost sediments in Beringia. We have already recovered identifiable DNA from samples of fossil beetle chitin. This new avenue of research holds great promise for unravelling the biological history of the North.
Recent Research Grants
2009-2012: Co-Investigator (John Hoffecker, senior P.I.) of an NSF grant to study the archaeology and paleoenvironments of Paleoeskimo archaeological sites near Cape Espenberg, western Alaska, funded by the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs, Arctic Social Sciences (Grant made to the University of Colorado)
2010-2011: Principal investigator of a study of Holocene insect fossils from Little Takli Island, Katmai National Park, Alaska, funded by the National Park Service
2004-2007: Principal investigator of a grant to study middle Pleistocene interglacial environments of interior Alaska and the Yukon Territory, funded by the Leverhulme Trust
2000-2004: Principal investigator of a grant to study paleoenvironments of the last interglacial period from Alaska, based on multi-proxy fossil analyses, tephrochronology, and thermoluminescence dating, funded by the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs, Arctic Natural Sciences (Grant made to the University of Colorado)
1999-2004: Principal investigator of a grant to develop an interactive CD-ROM program on Arctic science for middle school students, funded by the National Science Foundation, Elementary, Secondary, and Informal Education Program (Grant made to the University of Colorado
Research output: Book/Report › Book
Research output: Contribution to journal › Article
Research output: Contribution to journal › Editorial
Project: Funded Project › Research
Project: Non-funded Project › Research